Glycaemic, blood pressure and lipid goal attainment and chronic kidney disease stage of type 2 diabetic patients treated in primary care practices
The prevalence of chronic kidney disease and diabetes is rising in Europe. These patients are at high cardiovascular and renal risk and need a challenging multifactorial therapeutic approach.
The goal of this cross-sectional study was to examine the treatment and attainments of goals related to cardiovascular risk factors within chronic kidney disease stages in type 2 diabetic patients followed up by primary care physicians in Switzerland. Each participating physician entered into a web database the anonymised data of up to 15 consecutive diabetic patients attending her/his office between December 2013 and June 2014. Diabetes, hypertension and lipid lowering therapies were analysed, as well as glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) levels and goal attainments by KDIGO chronic kidney disease stage 1 to 4.
A total of 1359 patients (mean age 66.5±12.4 years) were included by 109 primary care physicians. Chronic kidney disease stages 0–2, 3a, 3 b and 4 were present in 77.6%, 13.9%, 6.1%, and 2.4%, respectively. Average HbA1c was independent of chronic kidney disease stage and close to 7%; more than half of the patients reached the HbA1c goal. Eighty-four percent of patients were hypertensive and only 18.2% reached the then current Swiss or American Diabetes Association 2013 blood pressure goals. Despite loosening of blood pressure goals in 2015, only half of the patients reached them and most needed multiple therapies. Increased body mass index and advanced chronic kidney disease stage decreased the chance of reaching blood pressure goals. Lipid lowering therapy was prescribed in 62.1% of cases, with average LDL-c levels similar across chronic kidney disease stages. Only 42% of patients reached the LDL-c goal of <2.5 mmol/l in primary prevention and 32% reached <1.8 mmol/l in secondary prevention. Younger patients were treated significantly less aggressively than older patients (≥68 years, median age) for HbA1c, LDL-c and diastolic blood pressure control.
This cross-sectional study demonstrates that blood pressure and lipid goals are less often achieved than blood glucose control in type 2 diabetic patients followed up by primary care physicians in Switzerland. Goal attainments for HbA1c and LDL-c were not influenced by chronic kidney disease stages, in contrast to blood pressure. Reaching all three goals was rare (2.2%). There is a need for improvement in blood pressure control in advanced chronic kidney disease, whereas HbA1c goals may be loosened in the elderly and in advanced chronic kidney disease.
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