Oxidised phospholipids (OxPLs) are generated from (poly)unsaturated diacyl- and alk(en)ylacyl glycerophospholipids under conditions of oxidative stress. OxPLs exert a wide variety of biological effects on diverse cell types in vitro and in vivo and are thought to play a role in the development of several chronic diseases including atherosclerosis, a classical lipid-associated and inflammatory disorder. OxPLs are recognised as culprit molecular components responsible for the pathophysiological actions of oxidised low-density lipoproteins. There is growing interest in the potential use of OxPLs as biomarkers of human pathologies. Here we offer a brief overview of current detection methods and knowledge on relationships between levels of circulating OxPLs and disease progression, with particular emphasis on cardiovascular disease.