Prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health in a community-based population – results from the Swiss Longitudinal Cohort Study (SWICOS)
AIMS OF THE STUDY: The American Heart Association (AHA) developed a concept to measure cardiovascular health in populations. We aimed to analyse participants in the Swiss Longitudinal Cohort Study (SWICOS) according to the AHA concept.
METHODS: We analysed cardiovascular health according to the AHA concept in all 474 participants of the prospective, population-based SWICOS study who were 18 years or older. The AHA concept uses seven health metrics of known cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, total cholesterol, blood glucose, smoking, body weight, physical activity and diet), and classifies each health metric according to three levels (ideal, intermediate and poor) using pre-defined cut-offs.
RESULTS: Ideal cardiovascular health for three or more of the seven health metrics was found in 259 participants (54.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 50.1–59.4%), but a relevant number of participants (n = 213, 45.1%, 95% CI 40.6–49.7%) showed ideal cardiovascular health for only two or fewer of the seven health metrics. Poor cardiovascular health for three or more of the seven health metrics was found in 40 participants (8.5%; 95% CI 6.1–11.4%); a majority of 432 participants (91.5%; 95% CI 88.6–93.9%) showed a poor level for only two or fewer of the seven health metrics.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we found favourable results for cardiovascular health in the population-based SWICOS cohort. Nevertheless, we see the need for further health prevention campaigns given the fact that a relevant proportion of the participants could optimise their cardiovascular health.
Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT02282748
- Lloyd-Jones DM, Hong Y, Labarthe D, Mozaffarian D, Appel LJ, Van Horn L, et al.; American Heart Association Strategic Planning Task Force and Statistics Committee. Defining and setting national goals for cardiovascular health promotion and disease reduction: the American Heart Association’s strategic Impact Goal through 2020 and beyond. Circulation. 2010 Feb;121(4):586–613. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.192703
- Medina-Inojosa JR, Vinciguerra M, Maugeri A, Kunzova S, Sochor O, Movsisyan N, et al. Prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health in a Central European community: results from the Kardiovize Brno 2030 Project. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2020 Mar;27(4):441–3. https://doi.org/10.1177/2047487319834875
- Bambs C, Kip KE, Dinga A, Mulukutla SR, Aiyer AN, Reis SE. Low prevalence of “ideal cardiovascular health” in a community-based population: the heart strategies concentrating on risk evaluation (Heart SCORE) study. Circulation. 2011 Mar;123(8):850–7. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.980151
- Graciani A, León-Muñoz LM, Guallar-Castillón P, Rodríguez-Artalejo F, Banegas JR. Cardiovascular health in a southern Mediterranean European country: a nationwide population-based study. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2013 Jan;6(1):90–8. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.112.967893
- Ford ES, Greenlund KJ, Hong Y. Ideal cardiovascular health and mortality from all causes and diseases of the circulatory system among adults in the United States. Circulation. 2012 Feb;125(8):987–95. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.111.049122
- Lachman S, Peters RJ, Lentjes MA, Mulligan AA, Luben RN, Wareham NJ, et al. Ideal cardiovascular health and risk of cardiovascular events in the EPIC-Norfolk prospective population study. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2016 Jun;23(9):986–94. https://doi.org/10.1177/2047487315602015
- Sabia S, Fayosse A, Dumurgier J, Schnitzler A, Empana JP, Ebmeier KP, et al. Association of ideal cardiovascular health at age 50 with incidence of dementia: 25 year follow-up of Whitehall II cohort study. BMJ. 2019 Aug;366:l4414. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.l4414
- Rasmussen-Torvik LJ, Shay CM, Abramson JG, Friedrich CA, Nettleton JA, Prizment AE, et al. Ideal cardiovascular health is inversely associated with incident cancer: the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities study. Circulation. 2013 Mar;127(12):1270–5. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.001183
- Schoenenberger AW, Muggli F, Parati G, Gallino A, Ehret G, Suter PM, et al. Protocol of the Swiss Longitudinal Cohort Study (SWICOS) in rural Switzerland. BMJ Open. 2016 Nov;6(11):e013280. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013280
- Richardson MT, Leon AS, Jacobs DR Jr, Ainsworth BE, Serfass R. Comprehensive evaluation of the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire. J Clin Epidemiol. 1994 Mar;47(3):271–81. https://doi.org/10.1016/0895-4356(94)90008-6
- National Center for Health Statistics. Plan and operation of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-94. Series 1: programs and collection procedures. Vital Health Stat 1. 1994 Jul;1(32):1–407.
- Monteiro CA, Cannon G, Levy RB, Moubarac JC, Louzada ML, Rauber F, et al. Ultra-processed foods: what they are and how to identify them. Public Health Nutr. 2019 Apr;22(5):936–41. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980018003762
- Williams B, Mancia G, Spiering W, Agabiti Rosei E, Azizi M, Burnier M, et al.; ESC Scientific Document Group. 2018 ESC/ESH Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension. Eur Heart J. 2018 Sep;39(33):3021–104. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehy339
- Bundesamt für Statistik (BFS). Schweizerische Gesundheitsbefragung 2017. BFS, Neuchâtel 2018.