Vol. 144 No. 4142 (2014)
Risky single occasion drinking frequency and alcohol-related consequences: can abstinence during early adulthood lead to alcohol problems?
- Marc Dupuis
- Stephanie Baggio
- Yves Henchoz
- Stéphane Deline
- Alexandra N'Goran
- Joseph Studer
- Caroline Baehler
- Meichun Mohler-Kuo
- Gerhard Gmel
QUESTIONS UNDER STUDY: the main purpose of this longitudinal study was to determine the impact of risky single occasion drinking (RSOD) frequency on alcohol dependence and drinking consequences reported 15 months later.
METHODS: As a baseline sample, 5,990 young men were assessed on their drinking habits including the frequency of RSOD. Of them, 5,196 were reassessed at follow-up 15 months later on RSOD frequency, alcohol dependence and alcohol related consequences in thze interceding year. Drop out biases were investigated.
RESULTS: Around 45% of the baseline participants reported regular RSOD (every month or more frequently). Despite the fact that RSOD distribution was generally stable during the initial sample, 47.4% reported a variation of their RSOD frequency 15 months later. Around 25% of the sample reported reduced RSOD frequency. Nonetheless, occasional RS drinkers were more likely to become regular (monthly) RSO drinkers at follow up. Daily and weekly RSOD were associated with high proportions of alcohol dependence and detrimental consequences of drinking. Surprisingly, abstainers at baseline were more likely to be at risk of alcohol dependence and consequences at follow up than non-RSO drinkers.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite the fact that alcohol abstinence is logically the best way to avoid the detrimental consequences of alcohol drinking, abstainers at baseline reported as many problems due to alcohol use at follow up as occasional or monthly RSO drinkers. The few participants who had become RSO drinkers during the follow up period were indeed likely to engage in detrimental behaviour. Non-RSO drinkers had the fewest problems due to alcohol use. This substantiates the early occurrence of drinking consequences among inexperienced RSO drinkers.
- Wechsler H, Nelson TF. Binge drinking and the American college student: what's five drinks? Psychol Addict Behav. 2001;15(4):287–91.
- Gmel G, Kuntsche E, Rehm J. Risky single-occasion drinking: bingeing is not bingeing. Addiction. 2011;106(6):1037–45.
- Marmet S, Rehm J, Gmel G, Frick H, Gmel G. Alcohol-attributable mortality in Switzerland in 2011 – age-specific causes of death and impact of heavy versus non-heavy drinking. Swiss Med Wkly. 2014;144(w13947).
- Mohler-Kuo M, Dowdall GW, Koss MP, Wechsler H. Correlates of rape while intoxicated in a national sample of college women. J Stud Alcohol. 2004;65(1):37–45.
- Pridemore WA. Weekend effects on binge drinking and homicide: the social connection between alcohol and violence in Russia. Addiction. 2004;99(8):1034–41.
- Robin RW, Long JC, Rasmussen JK, Albaugh B, Goldman D. Relationship of binge drinking to alcohol dependence, other psychiatric disorders, and behavioral problems in an American Indian tribe. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1998;22(2):518–23.
- Schulenberg J, O'Malley PM, Bachman JG, Wadsworth KN, Johnston LD. Getting drunk and growing up: trajectories of frequent binge drinking during the transition to young adulthood. J Stud Alcohol. 1996;57(3):289–304.
- Daeppen JB, Anex F, Leutwyler J, Gammeter R, Darioli R, Pecoud A. Binge drinking in 19 year old men. Swiss Med Wkly. 2005;135(11–12):179–83.
- Gmel G, Kuntsche E, Wicki M, Labhart F. Measuring alcohol-related consequences in school surveys: alcohol-attributable consequences or consequences with students’ alcohol attribution. Am J Epidemiology. 2010;171(1):93–104.
- Studer J, Baggio S, Mohler-Kuo M, Dermota P, Gaume J, Bertholet N, et al. Examining non-response bias in substance use research – are late respondents proxies for non-respondents? Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013;132:316–23.
- American Psychiatric Association: DSM-IV-TR: diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. Washington D.C.: American Psychiatric Association; 2000.
- Knight JR, Wechsler H, Kuo M, Seibring M, Weitzman ER, Schuckit MA. Alcohol abuse and dependence among U.S. college students. J Stud Alcohol. 2002;63(3):263–70.
- Adam A, Faouzi M, Gaume J, Gmel G, Daeppen JB, Bertholet N. Age of first alcohol intoxication: association with risky drinking and other substance use at the age of 20. Swiss Med Wkly. 2011;141:w13226.
- Dermen KH, Cooper ML: Sex-Related Alcohol Expectancies among Adolescents. 2. Prediction of Drinking in Social and Sexual Situations. Psychol Addict Behav. 1994;8(3):161–8.
- Cooper ML. Alcohol use and risky sexual beahvior among college students and the youth: evaluating the evidence. J Stud Alcohol. 2002;14:101–17.
- Young SE, Corley RP, Stallings MC, Rhee SH, Crowley TJ, Hewitt JK. Substance use, abuse and dependence in adolescence: prevalence, symptom profiles and correlates. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2002;68(3):309–22.
- Grant BF. Prevalence and correlates of drug use and DSM-IV drug dependence in the United States: results of the National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey. Journal Subst Abuse. 1996;8(2):195–210.
- Swendsen J, Burstein M, Case B, Conway KP, Dierker L, He J, Merikangas KR. Use and abuse of alcohol and illicit drugs in US adolescents: results of the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2012;69(4):390–8.
- Cohen J. A power primer. Psychol Bull. 1992;112(1):155–9.
- Oesterle S, Hill KG, Hawkins JD, Guo J, Catalano RF, Abbott RD: Adolescent heavy episodic drinking trajectories and health in young adulthood. J Stud Alcohol. 2004;65(2):204–12.
- Grant BF, Stinson FS, Hasin DS, Dawson DA, Chou SP, Anderson K. Immigration and lifetime prevalence of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders among Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites in the United States: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004;61(12):1226–33.
- Rehm J, Gmel G, Room R, Frick U. Average volume of alcohol consumption, drinking patterns and related burden of mortality in young people in established market economies of Europe. Eur Addict Res. 2001;7(3):148–51.
- Studer J, Baggio S, Deline S, N’Goran A, Henchoz Y, Mohler-Kuo M, et al. Peer pressure and alcohol use in young adults: A mediation analysis of drinking motives. Int J Drug Policy In Press.