Skip to main navigation menu Skip to main content Skip to site footer

Original article

Vol. 147 No. 2930 (2017)

A 10-year observational study of Streptococcus dysgalactiae bacteraemia in adults: frequent occurrence among female intravenous drug users

Cite this as:
Swiss Med Wkly. 2017;147:w14469


Beta-haemolytic streptococci of groups C and G have become increasingly recognized as causes of invasive human infections. We reviewed clinical and molecular characteristics of Streptococcus dysgalactiae isolates that caused bacteraemia in adults from 2006 to 2015. Among 67 episodes, skin and soft-tissue infections (43%) and emm types stG62647.0 (26%) were the most frequent clinical manifestation and emm type, respectively. Nineteen (28%) episodes occurred in intravenous drug users (75% women). Our observational study shows similarities to but also differences from other reports. The former include the most frequent clinical presentations, and the most frequently found emm types. This report highlights a relatively high proportion of female intravenous drug users among S. dysgalactiae bacteraemia episodes.


  1. Takahashi T, Ubukata K, Watanabe H. Invasive infection caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis: characteristics of strains and clinical features. J Infect Chemother. 2011;17(1):1–10. doi:.
  2. Brandt CM, Spellerberg B. Human infections due to Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;49(5):766–72. doi:.
  3. Rantala S. Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis bacteremia: an emerging infection. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2014;33(8):1303–10. doi:.
  4. Broyles LN, Van Beneden C, Beall B, Facklam R, Shewmaker PL, Malpiedi P, et al. Population-based study of invasive disease due to beta-hemolytic streptococci of groups other than A and B. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48(6):706–12. doi:.
  5. Loubinoux J, Plainvert C, Collobert G, Touak G, Bouvet A, Poyart C ; CNR-Strep Network. Adult invasive and noninvasive infections due to Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis in France from 2006 to 2010. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51(8):2724–7. doi:.
  6. Oppegaard O, Mylvaganam H, Kittang BR. Beta-haemolytic group A, C and G streptococcal infections in Western Norway: a 15-year retrospective survey. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2015;21(2):171–8. doi:.
  7. Trell K, Nilson B, Rasmussen M. Species and emm-type distribution of group C and G streptococci from different sites of isolation. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2016;86(4):467–9. doi:.
  8. Liao CH, Liu LC, Huang YT, Teng LJ, Hsueh PR. Bacteremia caused by group G Streptococci, taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):837–40. doi:.
  9. Rantala S, Vahakuopus S, Vuopio-Varkila J, Vuento R, Syrjanen J. Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis Bacteremia, Finland, 1995-2004. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(5):843–6. doi:.
  10. Trell K, Sendi P, Rasmussen M. Recurrent bacteremia with Streptococcus dysgalactiae: a case-control study. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2016;85(1):121–4. doi:.
  11. Takahashi T, Asami R, Tanabe K, Hirono Y, Nozawa Y, Chiba N, et al. Clinical aspects of invasive infection with Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis in elderly patients. J Infect Chemother. 2010;16(1):68–71. doi:.
  12. Navarro VJ, Axelrod PI, Pinover W, Hockfield HS, Kostman JR. A comparison of Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcal) bacteremia at an urban and a suburban hospital. The importance of intravenous drug use. Arch Intern Med. 1993;153(23):2679–84. doi:.
  13. Bernaldo de Quirós JC, Moreno S, Cercenado E, Diaz D, Berenguer J, Miralles P, et al. Group A streptococcal bacteremia. A 10-year prospective study. Medicine (Baltimore). 1997;76(4):238–48. doi:.
  14. Léchot P, Schaad HJ, Graf S, Täuber M, Mühlemann K ; Patricia Léchot, Heinz J. Schaad, S. Group A streptococcus clones causing repeated epidemics and endemic disease in intravenous drug users. Scand J Infect Dis. 2001;33(1):41–6. doi:.
  15. Lambertsen LM, Ingels H, Schønheyder HC, Hoffmann S ; Danish Streptococcal Surveillance Collaboration Group 2011. Nationwide laboratory-based surveillance of invasive beta-haemolytic streptococci in Denmark from 2005 to 2011. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2014;20(4):O216–23. doi:.
  16. Schwartz IS, Keynan Y, Gilmour MW, Dufault B, Lagacé-Wiens P. Changing trends in β-hemolytic streptococcal bacteremia in Manitoba, Canada: 2007-2012. Int J Infect Dis. 2014;28:211–3. doi:.
  17. Harris P, Siew DA, Proud M, Buettner P, Norton R. Bacteraemia caused by beta-haemolytic streptococci in North Queensland: changing trends over a 14-year period. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2011;17(8):1216–22. doi:.
  18. Pinho MD, Melo-Cristino J, Ramirez M. Clonal relationships between invasive and noninvasive Lancefield group C and G streptococci and emm-specific differences in invasiveness. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44(3):841–6. doi:.

Most read articles by the same author(s)