New oral anticoagulants used as single target inhibitors of coagulation enzymes have been developed and tested in extensive trial programmes. Results of most of these trials showed non-inferior and/or superior efficacy and safety compared to standard treatment with LMWH or VKA. These results led to registration of these agents for the prophylaxis or treatment of thrombosis, as well as stroke prophylaxis in atrial fibrillation. In addition to good efficacy and safety these agents are more convenient in their use and promise advantages in quality of life. Caution is needed, though, since drug-interactions, interferences with coagulation tests and risk of accumulation in case of renal failure should always be taken into consideration when planning a treatment. In the present current-opinion review these advantages and disadvantages are discussed and expressed options are analysed.