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Knowledge on the underlying causes and patterns of substance use, as well as the prevalence of substance use disorders in professional sports, is still limited. High prevalence of various substances (i.e., nicotine, prescription opioids) may indicate potentially harmful patterns of use, requiring further research. Specific preventive and therapeutic concepts for the treatment of substance use disorders in elite athletes should be developed.
The transverse plantar approach results in good objective outcome scores, including scar healing, in the long term. It offers optimal visualisation of the nerve, does not require deep dissection and allows the exposure of two adjacent web spaces of the foot through a single incision.
Injury prevention in amateur soccer has been promoted in recent years, but few studies have addressed long-term changes in injury rates. Better knowledge of changes in injury incidences and causes could help improve prevention strategies.
A mini-overview of single muscle fibre mechanics: the effects of age, inactivity and exercise in animals and humans
Muscle weakness and loss of muscle mass are important social issues in an aging population. One of the safest and most effective ways to delay and prevent the negative effects of aging and inactivity is physical exercise.
Iron is not only important for the storage and transport of O2, but also plays many other vital roles, Hence, detection and treatment of iron depletion, even in the absence of anaemia, is crucial.
Good cardiorespiratory fitness in youth is associated with a lower risk of myocardial infarction in later life. Measurement of cardiorespiratory fitness is necessary to assess the future risk of disease and evaluate physical activity programmes.
Prevalence of abnormal electrocardiograms in Swiss elite athletes detected with modern screening criteria
In recent years, a number of recommendations for ECG interpretation in athletes have aimed to improve specificity without losing sensitivity.