Skip to main navigation menu Skip to main content Skip to site footer


Vol. 152 No. 1920 (2022)

Are we ready for Artificial Intelligence in Medicine?

  • Jeffrey David Iqbal
  • Rasita Vinay
Cite this as:
Swiss Med Wkly. 2022;152:w30179


  1. U.S. FDA. Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning (AI/ML)-Enabled Medical Devices [Internet]; 2021 [cited 2021 Nov 23]. Available from:
  2. Crevier D. AI - the tumultuous history of the search for artificial intelligence. New York: BasicBooks; 1993.
  3. IQVIA Institute. Digital Health Trends 2021 [Internet]; 2021 [cited 2021 Aug 27]. Available from:
  4. Gartner Inc. The 4 Trends That Prevail on the Gartner Hype Cycle for AI, 2021 [Internet]; 2021 [cited 2021 Nov 20]. Available from:
  5. Nash FA. Differential diagnosis, an apparatus to assist the logical faculties. Lancet. 1954 Apr;266(6817):874–5.
  6. de Dombal FT, Leaper DJ, Staniland JR, McCann AP, Horrocks JC. Computer-aided diagnosis of acute abdominal pain. BMJ. 1972 Apr;2(5804):9–13.
  7. Web MD. LLC. WebMD Symptom Checker with Body Map [Internet]; 2020. Available from:
  8. Wong A, Otles E, Donnelly JP, Krumm A, McCullough J, DeTroyer-Cooley O, et al. External Validation of a Widely Implemented Proprietary Sepsis Prediction Model in Hospitalized Patients. JAMA Intern Med. 2021 Aug;181(8):1065–70.
  9. Thompson HM, Sharma B, Bhalla S, Boley R, McCluskey C, Dligach D, et al. Bias and fairness assessment of a natural language processing opioid misuse classifier: detection and mitigation of electronic health record data disadvantages across racial subgroups. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2021 Oct;28(11):2393–403.
  10. Szalavitz M. A Drug Addiction Risk Algorithm and Its Grim Toll on Chronic Pain Sufferers [Internet]. WIRED; 2021 [cited 2021 Aug 26]. Available from:
  11. Bauer MS, Damschroder L, Hagedorn H, Smith J, Kilbourne AM. An introduction to implementation science for the non-specialist. BMC Psychol. 2015 Sep;3(1):32.
  12. Van Norman GA. Drugs, Devices, and the FDA: Part 2: An Overview of Approval Processes: FDA Approval of Medical Devices. JACC Basic Transl Sci. 2016 Jun;1(4):277–87.
  13. Karaca O, Çalışkan SA, Demir K. Medical artificial intelligence readiness scale for medical students (MAIRS-MS) - development, validity and reliability study. BMC Med Educ. 2021 Feb;21(1):112.
  14. Jobin A, Ienca M, Vayena E. The global landscape of AI ethics guidelines. Nat Mach Intell. 2019;1(9):389–99.
  15. OECD. OECD Health Expenditure Indicators [Internet]. OECD; 2017 [cited 2021 Nov 20]. Available from: