One year follow-up of physical performance and quality of life in patients surviving COVID-19: a prospective cohort study
INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) continues to affect many countries globally, with the long-term impact of the disease now being recognized. According to the latest research, some of the affected individuals continue to experience functional limitations, reduced physical performance and impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL) even after eight months. This prospective cohort study aimed to describe the longer-term recovery of physical performance and HRQoL in COVID-19 survivors over one year.
METHOD: A cohort (n = 43; 32-84 years old) hospitalized with COVID-19 between March and June 2020 was followed over one year and assessed at three time points: hospital discharge, 3 months and 12 months post-admission. Participants experienced mild (10/43) to critical (6/43) pneumonia and stayed in the hospital for a median of 10 days (IQR 9). Participants were assessed for physical performance (six-minute walk test), HRQoL (EQ-5D-5L), COVID-19 related limitations in functionality (PCFS), hospital-related anxiety and depression (HADS-A/-D), lung function (FEV1, FVC) and dyspnea during activity (mMRC). All assessments were conducted by physiotherapists trained in cardio-respiratory rehabilitation.
RESULTS: After discharge, 8/34 showed reduced physical performance, 9/42 had lower HRQoL and 14/32 had COVID-19 induced limitations in functionality on the PCFS scale. Physical performance did not change significantly between discharge and 12-month follow-up, but 15/34 participants showed clinically relevant improvements in walking distance (>30 m). However, 16/34 had a decreased walking distance >30 m when comparing 3-month to 12-month follow-up. At 12 months, 12/41 of participants still perceived COVID-19 related limitations in daily life on the PCFS scale. For HRQoL, 12/41 participants still perceived moderate-to-severe symptoms of pain and discomfort and 13/41 slight-to-severe symptoms of anxiety and depression.
CONCLUSION: This cohort of adult patients hospitalized for mild to severe COVID-19 in Switzerland was generally mildly affected but still reported some limitations after one year. These results offer preliminary indications for ongoing support after hospitalization and point towards the need for specific, individualized follow-up to support their recovery.
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