Skip to main navigation menu Skip to main content Skip to site footer

Original article

Vol. 150 No. 1112 (2020)

Substance use as a function of activity level among young Swiss men

  • Ibrahima D. Diatta
  • André Berchtold
DOI
https://doi.org/10.4414/smw.2020.20197
Cite this as:
Swiss Med Wkly. 2020;150:w20197
Published
22.03.2020

Abstract

Adolescence is a period of life during which many people experiment with different kinds of legal and illegal substances. However, young people practising physical activities at a high level should avoid taking such substances. On the basis of a large sample of Swiss male recruits (C-SURF baseline data), we explore the consumption of substances among three subgroups of young adults, defined according to level of physical activity: high, medium, and low.

Our results show that respondents classified into the high level of physical activity group went through the same experimentation processes with substances as respondents in the other groups, but that they reduced their overall consumption level, as indicated by measures regarding the last 12 months only. However, substantial differences are observed when we look at each substance separately. In particular, smokeless tobacco products are consumed more in the high group, and alcohol consumption is high in all groups.

Physical activity, even at a high level, is not a protective factor against substance consumption. Therefore, physicians should not forget to investigate substance use among people with high levels of physical activity, especially since their consumption can (1) differ from the general population; and (2) have important consequences on their physical performance.

References

  1. Michaud P-A, Berchtold A, Jeannin A, Chossis I, Suris J-C. Secular trends in legal and illegal substance use among 16 to 20 year old adolescents in Switzerland. Swiss Med Wkly. 2006;136(19-20):318–26.
  2. Whyte AJ, Torregrossa MM, Barker JM, Gourley SL. Editorial: Long-Term Consequences of Adolescent Drug Use: Evidence From Pre-clinical and Clinical Models. Front Behav Neurosci. 2018;12:83. doi:.https://doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2018.00083
  3. Levesque RJR, ed. Encyclopedia of Adolescence. 2nd edition. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing; 2018.
  4. Miller PM, Plant M. Drinking, smoking, and illicit drug use among 15 and 16 year olds in the United Kingdom. BMJ. 1996;313(7054):394–7. doi:.https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.313.7054.394
  5. Odgers CL, Caspi A, Nagin DS, Piquero AR, Slutske WS, Milne BJ, et al. Is it important to prevent early exposure to drugs and alcohol among adolescents? Psychol Sci. 2008;19(10):1037–44. doi:.https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02196.x
  6. Kandel D. Stages in adolescent involvement in drug use. Science. 1975;190(4217):912–4. doi:.https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1188374
  7. Kandel DB, ed. Stages and pathways of drug involvement: Examining the gateway hypothesis. New York, US: Cambridge University Press; 2002.
  8. Berchtold A, Akré C, Jeannin A, Michaud P-A, Suris J-C. First consumption ever of multiple substances: applying an expert-based taxonomy to a Swiss national sample of adolescents. Addict Behav. 2011;36(1-2):68–72. doi:.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2010.08.023
  9. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. World drug report. https://wdr.unodc.org/wdr2019/index.html, 2019. Accessed 05 August 2019.
  10. Barrense-Dias Y, Berchtold A, Akre C, Surís J-C. Consuming energy drinks at the age of 14 predicted legal and illegal substance use at 16. Acta Paediatr. 2016;105(11):1361–8. doi:.https://doi.org/10.1111/apa.13543
  11. McCabe SE, West BT, McCabe VV. Associations between early onset of E-cigarette use and cigarette smoking and other substance use among US adolescents: A national study. Nicotine Tob Res. 2018;20(8):923–30. doi:.https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntx231
  12. World Anti-Doping Agency. Prohibited list. https://www.wada-ama.org/sites/ default/files/wada_2019_english_prohibited_list.pdf, 2019. Accessed 20 August 2019.
  13. Striegel H, Ulrich R, Simon P. Randomized response estimates for doping and illicit drug use in elite athletes. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2010;106(2-3):230–2. doi:.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2009.07.026
  14. Glick ID, Stillman MA, Reardon CL, Ritvo EC. Managing psychiatric issues in elite athletes. J Clin Psychiatry. 2012;73(5):640–4. doi:.https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.11r07381
  15. Morente-Sánchez J, Zabala M. Doping in sport: a review of elite athletes’ attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge. Sports Med. 2013;43(6):395–411. doi:.https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-013-0037-x
  16. Diehl K, Thiel A, Zipfel S, Mayer J, Schneider S. Substance use among elite adolescent athletes: findings from the GOAL Study. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2014;24(1):250–8. doi:.https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2012.01472.x
  17. Rainey CJ, McKeown RE, Sargent RG, Valois RF. Patterns of tobacco and alcohol use among sedentary, exercising, nonathletic, and athletic youth. J Sch Health. 1996;66(1):27–32. doi:.https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.1996.tb06254.x
  18. Nelson TF, Wechsler H. Alcohol and college athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33(1):43–7. doi:.https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200101000-00008
  19. Bélanger RE, Ohl F, Berchtold A, Akre C, Suris J-C. Social contexts of sports-practicing youths’ hazardous drinking. Swiss Med Wkly. 2012;142(0708):w13526. doi:.https://doi.org/10.4414/smw.2012.13526
  20. Davis TC, Arnold C, Nandy I, Bocchini JA, Gottlieb A, George RB, et al. Tobacco use among male high school athletes. J Adolesc Health. 1997;21(2):97–101. doi:.https://doi.org/10.1016/S1054-139X(97)00032-3
  21. Moore MJ, Werch CE. Sport and physical activity participation and substance use among adolescents. J Adolesc Health. 2005;36(6):486–93. doi:.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2004.02.031
  22. Henninger S, Fischer R, Cornuz J, Studer J, Gmel G. Physical activity and snus: is there a link? Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015;12(7):7185–98. doi:.https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120707185
  23. Zandonai T, Chiamulera C, Mancabelli A, Falconieri D, Diana M. A preliminary investigation on smokeless tobacco use and its cognitive effects among athletes. Front Pharmacol. 2018;9:216. doi:.https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2018.00216
  24. Sekulic D, Peric M, Rodek J. Substance use and misuse among professional ballet dancers. Subst Use Misuse. 2010;45(9):1420–30. doi:.https://doi.org/10.3109/10826081003682198
  25. Wyss T, Roos L, Studer F, Mäder U, Beuchat C, Staub K. Development of physical fitness performance in young Swiss men from 2006 to 2015. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2019;29(4):586–96. doi:.https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.13376
  26. Swiss Statistics. Statistiques de la Santé 2019. Neuchâtel, Switzerland: Office fédéral de la statistique (OFS); 2019. Accessed 8 January 2020.
  27. Gmel G, Akre C, Astudillo M, Bähler C, Baggio S, Bertholet N, et al. The Swiss cohort study on substance use risk factors – findings of two waves. Sucht. 2015;61(4):251–62. doi:.https://doi.org/10.1024/0939-5911.a000380
  28. Craig CL, Marshall AL, Sjöström M, Bauman AE, Booth ML, Ainsworth BE, et al. International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003;35(8):1381–95. doi:.https://doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000078924.61453.FB
  29. Gauthier AP, Lariviere M, Young N. Psychometric properties of the IPAQ: a validation study in a sample of northern Franco-Ontarians. J Phys Act Health. 2009;6(s1, Suppl 1):S54–60. doi:.https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.6.s1.s54
  30. Stata. Stata Statistical Software: Release 15. College Station, TX: StataCorp LLC, 2017.
  31. Papaioannou A, Karastogiannidou C, Theodorakis Y. Sport involvement, sport violence and health behaviours of Greek adolescents. Eur J Public Health. 2004;14(2):168–72. doi:.https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/14.2.168
  32. Baumert PW, Jr, Henderson JM, Thompson NJ. Health risk behaviors of adolescent participants in organized sports. J Adolesc Health. 1998;22(6):460–5. doi:.https://doi.org/10.1016/S1054-139X(97)00242-5
  33. Pate RR, Trost SG, Levin S, Dowda M. Sports participation and health-related behaviors among US youth. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2000;154(9):904–11. doi:.https://doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.154.9.904
  34. Henchoz Y, Baggio S, N’Goran AA, Studer J, Deline S, Mohler-Kuo M, et al. Health impact of sport and exercise in emerging adult men: a prospective study. Qual Life Res. 2014;23(8):2225–34. doi:.https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-014-0665-0

Most read articles by the same author(s)