Review article: Biomedical intelligence
Vol. 145 No. 1516 (2015)
- Baris Gencer
- Gilles Lambert
- François Mach
The discovery of proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 (PCSK9) has considerably changed the therapeutic options in the field of lipid management. PCSK9 reduces LDL receptor recycling, leading to a decrease of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) receptors on the surface of hepatocytes and a subsequent increase of circulating LDL-C levels. In observational studies, the loss-of-function mutations of PCSK9 have been associated with a reduction of LDL-C levels and cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. In contrast, humans with high levels of PCSK9 have higher level of plasma LDL-C and significantly enhanced CVD risk during their lifetime, gain-of-function mutations on PCSK9 are, for instance, causatively associated with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). Inhibition of PCSK9 is therefore a promising therapeutic option for the lowering of LDL-C levels. The clinical development of human monoclonal antibodies against PCSK9 has progressed, with promising results reported from phase 2 clinical studies in patients with FH or intolerant to statin with LDL-C levels not on target levels. Phase I studies demonstrated safety and efficacy. In phase II, a 60%–70% reduction in LDL-C was observed, especially when subcutaneous injections were performed regularly every two weeks. No significant side effects were observed, with the exception of injection site reactions. Three large phase III programmes with the new anti PCSK9 antibodies are currently underway in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and LDL-C inadequately controlled by standard treatments. The main objective of these studies is to evaluate the effect of PCSK9 inhibition on the occurrence of CVD events in patients with ACS.
- Vogel RA. PCSK9 inhibition: the next statin? J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;59(25):2354–5.
- Lambert G, Sjouke B, Choque B, Kastelein JJ, Hovingh GK. The PCSK9 decade. J Lipid Res. 2012;53(12):2515–24.
- Urban D, Poss J, Bohm M, Laufs U. Targeting the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 for the treatment of dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;62(16):1401–8.
- Dadu RT, Ballantyne CM. Lipid lowering with PCSK9 inhibitors. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2014;11(10):563–75.
- Farnier M. PCSK9 inhibitors. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2013;24(3):251–8.
- Marais AD, Kim JB, Wasserman SM, Lambert G. PCSK9 inhibition in LDL cholesterol reduction: Genetics and therapeutic implications of very low plasma lipoprotein levels. Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2014.
- Farnier M. PCSK9: From discovery to therapeutic applications. Arch Cardiovasc Dis. 2014;107(1):58–66.
- Sahebkar A, Watts GF. New LDL-cholesterol lowering therapies: pharmacology, clinical trials, and relevance to acute coronary syndromes. Clinical therapeutics. 2013;35(8):1082–98.
- Cariou B, Le May C, Costet P. Clinical aspects of PCSK9. Atherosclerosis. 2011;216(2):258–65.
- Cohen J, Pertsemlidis A, Kotowski IK, Graham R, Garcia CK, Hobbs HH. Low LDL cholesterol in individuals of African descent resulting from frequent nonsense mutations in PCSK9. Nature genetics. 2005;37(2):161–5.
- Nordestgaard BG, Chapman MJ, Humphries SE, Ginsberg HN, Masana L, Descamps OS, et al. Familial hypercholesterolaemia is underdiagnosed and undertreated in the general population: guidance for clinicians to prevent coronary heart disease: consensus statement of the European Atherosclerosis Society. Eur Heart J. 2013;34(45):3478–90a.
- Reiner Z, Catapano AL, De Backer G, Graham I, Taskinen MR, Wiklund O, et al. ESC/EAS Guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias: the Task Force for the management of dyslipidaemias of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS). Eur Heart J. 2011;32(14):1769–818.
- Abifadel M, Varret M, Rabes JP, Allard D, Ouguerram K, Devillers M, et al. Mutations in PCSK9 cause autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia. Nature genetics. 2003;34(2):154–6.
- Seidah NG, Awan Z, Chretien M, Mbikay M. PCSK9: a key modulator of cardiovascular health. Circ Res. 2014;114(6):1022–36.
- Hovingh GK, Davidson MH, Kastelein JJ, O’Connor AM. Diagnosis and treatment of familial hypercholesterolaemia. Eur Heart J. 2013;34(13):962–71.
- Cohen JC, Boerwinkle E, Mosley TH, Jr., Hobbs HH. Sequence variations in PCSK9, low LDL, and protection against coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med. 2006;354(12):1264–72.
- Dias CS, Shaywitz AJ, Wasserman SM, Smith BP, Gao B, Stolman DS, et al. Effects of AMG 145 on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels: results from 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, ascending-dose phase 1 studies in healthy volunteers and hypercholesterolemic subjects on statins. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;60(19):1888–98.
- Sullivan D, Olsson AG, Scott R, Kim JB, Xue A, Gebski V, et al. Effect of a monoclonal antibody to PCSK9 on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in statin-intolerant patients: the GAUSS randomized trial. JAMA. 2012;308(23):2497–506.
- Giugliano RP, Desai NR, Kohli P, Rogers WJ, Somaratne R, Huang F, et al. Efficacy, safety, and tolerability of a monoclonal antibody to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 in combination with a statin in patients with hypercholesterolaemia (LAPLACE-TIMI 57): a randomised, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging, phase 2 study. Lancet. 2012;380(9858):2007–17.
- Koren MJ, Scott R, Kim JB, Knusel B, Liu T, Lei L, et al. Efficacy, safety, and tolerability of a monoclonal antibody to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 as monotherapy in patients with hypercholesterolaemia (MENDEL): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 study. Lancet. 2012;380(9858):1995–2006.
- Raal F, Scott R, Somaratne R, Bridges I, Li G, Wasserman SM, et al. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-lowering effects of AMG 145, a monoclonal antibody to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 serine protease in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia: the Reduction of LDL-C with PCSK9 Inhibition in Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia Disorder (RUTHERFORD) randomized trial. Circulation. 2012;126(20):2408–17.
- Blom DJ, Hala T, Bolognese M, Lillestol MJ, Toth PD, Burgess L, et al. A 52–week placebo-controlled trial of evolocumab in hyperlipidemia. N Engl J Med. 2014;370(19):1809–19.
- Stein EA, Mellis S, Yancopoulos GD, Stahl N, Logan D, Smith WB, et al. Effect of a monoclonal antibody to PCSK9 on LDL cholesterol. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(12):1108–18.
- Stein EA, Gipe D, Bergeron J, Gaudet D, Weiss R, Dufour R, et al. Effect of a monoclonal antibody to PCSK9, REGN727/SAR236553, to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia on stable statin dose with or without ezetimibe therapy: a phase 2 randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2012;380(9836):29–36.
- Roth EM, McKenney JM, Hanotin C, Asset G, Stein EA. Atorvastatin with or without an antibody to PCSK9 in primary hypercholesterolemia. N Engl J Med. 2012;367(20):1891–900.
- McKenney JM, Koren MJ, Kereiakes DJ, Hanotin C, Ferrand AC, Stein EA. Safety and efficacy of a monoclonal antibody to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 serine protease, SAR236553/REGN727, in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia receiving ongoing stable atorvastatin therapy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;59(25):2344–53.
- Reichert JM. Antibodies to watch in 2014. mAbs 2014;6(1):5–14.
- Lambert G, Petrides F, Chatelais M, Blom DJ, Choque B, Tabet F, et al. Elevated plasma PCSK9 level is equally detrimental for patients with nonfamilial hypercholesterolemia and heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, irrespective of low-density lipoprotein receptor defects. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;63(22):2365–73.
- Baigent C, Blackwell L, Emberson J, Holland LE, Reith C, Bhala N, et al. Efficacy and safety of more intensive lowering of LDL cholesterol: a meta-analysis of data from 170,000 participants in 26 randomised trials. Lancet. 2010;376(9753):1670–81.
- Martin SS, Gosch K, Kulkarni KR, Spertus JA, Mathews R, Ho PM, et al. Modifiable factors associated with failure to attain low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goal at 6 months after acute myocardial infarction. Am Heart J. 2013;165(1):26–33 e3.