Associations between alcohol use expectancies and drinking problems among French soldiers
AIMS: The aim of the study was to evaluate which alcohol use expectancies could predict harmful use in the French Army to explore some hypotheses concerning socialising or coping effects.
METHODS: A cross-sectional survey, using self-administered questionnaires, was conducted in two Army units in 2011 (n = 249). Hazardous alcohol use and dependence were screened using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Alcohol expectancies were measured with the Alcohol Effects Questionnaire (AEFQ). A cluster analysis was performed to identify AEFQ dimensions in our sample. Relationships between AUDIT and AEFQ were explored using multinomial logistic regression.
RESULTS: According to AUDIT, 46.6% of soldiers used alcohol without hazard, 26.1% had hazardous use without dependence and 18.1% had use with dependence. The AEFQ had an adequate internal coherence with a 0.78 α coefficient. The scales identified by the cluster analysis in our sample fitted those retained in the originally validated AEFQ, with a correspondence ranging from 60% to 100%. In multivariate analysis, the scale “Social and physical pleasure” was associated with increasing hazardous use and subjects who scored higher on “Global positive” and “Social and physical pleasure” scales were more at risk of dependence.
CONCLUSION: The present study, in line with previous research in terms of importance of alcohol use disorders among military personnel, found that alcohol use expectancies are associated with alcohol misuse among soldiers. This could suggest underlying coping mechanisms towards stress that have to be further explored.
- Bray RM, Marsden ME, Guess LL, Herbold JR. Prevalence, trends, and correlates of alcohol use, nonmedical drug use, and tobacco use among U.S. military personnel. Mil Med. 1989;154(1):1–11.
- Bray RM, Hourani LL. Substance use trends among active duty military personnel: findings from the United States Department of Defense Health Related Behavior Surveys, 1980–2005. Addiction. 2007;102(7):1092–101.
- Mayet A, Marimoutou C, Haus-Cheymol R, Verret C, Ollivier L, Berger F, et al. Etat des lieux des conduites addictives dans les armées françaises: une méta-analyse des enquêtes de prévalence conduites entre 2005 et 2009. Médecine et armées 2014. In press. French.
- Verrall NG. A review of military research into alcohol consumption. In: NATO science and technology organization. Psychological Aspects of Deployment and Health Behaviours. 2011. Available at http://www.cso.nato.int/abstracts.aspx (accessed on February 12, 2014).
- Hooper R, Rona RJ, Jones M, Fear NT, Hull L, Wessely S. Cigarette and alcohol use in the UK armed forces, and their association with combat exposures: A prospective study. Addict Behav. 2008;33:1067–71.
- Foster EM. Deployment and the citizen soldier: need and resilience. Med Care. 2011;49:301–12.
- Stahre MA, Brewer RD, Fonseca VP, Naimi TS. Binge drinking among U.S. active-duty military personnel. Am J Prev Med. 2009;36:209–17.
- Marimoutou C, Queyriaux B, Michel R, Verret C, Haus-Cheymol R, Mayet A, et al. Survey of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use in the French army. J Addict Dis. 2010;29:98–106.
- Bell NS, Amoroso PJ, Yore MM, Smith GS, Jones BH. Self-reported risk-taking behaviors and hospitalization for motor-vehicle injury among active duty Army personnel. Am J Prev Med. 2000;18(3S):85–95.
- Helmkamp J, Kennedy R. National mortality profile of active duty personnel in the U.S. Armed Forces: 1980–1993. Atlanta GA: CDC, 1996.
- Stout RW, Parkinson MD, Wolfe WH. Alcohol-related mortality in the U.S. Air Force, 1990. Am J Prev Med. 1993;9:220–3
- Zadoo V, Fengler S. The effects of alcohol and tobacco use on troop readiness. Mil Med. 1993;158:480–4.
- Jones E, Fear NT. Alcohol use and misuse within the military: A review. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2011;23:166–72.
- Prévot E. Alcool et sociabilité militaire: de la cohésion au contrôle, de l’intégration à l’exclusion. Travailler. 2007;2(18):159–81. French.
- Saunders JB, Aasland OG, Babor TF, de la Fuente JR, Grant M. Development of the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT): WHO collaborative project on early detection of persons with harmful alcohol consumption? Addiction. 1993;88(6):791–804.
- Gache P, Michaud P, Landry U, Accietto C, Arfaoui S, Wenger O, et al. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) as a screening tool for excessive drinking in primary care: reliability and validity of a French version. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2005;29(11):2001–7.
- Rohsenow DJ. Drinking habits and expectancies about alcohol's effects for self versus others. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1983;51(5):752–6.
- Brown SA, Christiansen BA, Goldman MS. The Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire: an instrument for the assessment of adolescent and adult alcohol expectancies. J Stud Alcohol. 1987;48(5):483–91.
- Carvalho de Castro K, Rascle N, Romo L, et al. Les attentes positives envers l’alcool. Adaptation française de la version adulte du “Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire”. Journal de Thérapie Comportementale et cognitive 2007;17(1):33–7. French.
- Henderson A, Langston V, Greenberg N. Alcohol misuse in the Royal Navy. Occupational Medicine 2009;59:25–31.
- Beck F, Guignard R, Richard J-B, Tovar M-L, Spilka S. Les niveaux d’usage des drogues en France en 2010: exploitation des données du Baromètre santé 2010 relatives aux pratiques d’usages de substances psychoactives en population adulte. Tendances 2011;76. Available at http://www.ofdt.fr/ofdtdev/live/publi/tend/tend76.html (accessed on October 14, 2014). French.
- Fear NT, Iversen A, Meltzer H, Workman L, Hull L, Greenberg N, et al. Patterns of drinking in the UK Armed Forces. Addiction. 2007;102:1749–59.
- Carvalho de Castro K, Swendsen J, Husky MM. Les rôles des attentes par rapport aux effets de l’alcool et des antécédents familiaux d’alcoolisme sur la consommation quotidienne. Journal de Thérapie comportementale et cognitive 2010;20:118–24. French.
- Poehlman JA, Schwerin MJ, Pemberton MR,Isenberg K, Lane ME, Aspinwall K. Socio-Cultural Factors That Foster Use and Abuse of Alcohol Among a Sample of Enlisted Personnel at Four Navy and Marine Corps Installations. Mil Med. 2011;176:397–401.
- Zins M, Carle F, Bugel I, Leclerc A, Di Orio F, Goldberg M. Predictors of change in alcohol consumption among Frechmen of the Gazel study cohort. Addiction. 1999;94:385–95.
- Moos RH, Brennan PL, Fondacaro MR, Moos BS. Approach and avoidance coping responses among older problem and nonproblem drinkers. Psychol Aging. 1990;5(1):31–40.
- Hasking P, Lyvers M, Carlopio C. The relationship between coping strategies, alcohol expectancies, drinking motives and drinking behaviour. Add Behav. 2011;36(5):479–87.
- Savarese VW, Suvak MK King LA, King DW. Relationship among alcohol use, hyperarousal, and marital abuse and violence in Vietnam veterans. J Traum Stress. 2001;14:717–32.
- Shipherd JC, Stafford J Tanner LR. Predicting alcohol and drug abuse in Persian Gulf war veterans: what role do PTSD symptoms play? Add Behav. 2005;30:595–9.
- Creech SK, Borsari B. Alcohol use, military sexual trauma, expectancies, and coping skills in women veterans presenting to primary care. Add Behav. 2014;39:379–85.
- Anastario MP, Tavarez MI, Chun H. Sexual risk behavior among military personnel stationed at border-crossing zones in the Dominican Republic. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2010;28(5):361–7.