Vol. 140 No. 2728 (2010)
Work-life conflict and health among Swiss physicians – in comparison with other university graduates and with the general Swiss working population
- M Knecht
- GF Bauer
- O Hämmig
Question under study: The present study aimed to compare the prevalence of work-life conflict and the health status of physicians, with a representative sample of university graduates as well as with a representative sample of the general Swiss working population. Furthermore, it aimed to analyse whether work-life conflict correlates with the health of physicians, as it does in the general working population.
Methods: The present cross-sectional study analysed data from 2007 originating from the SwissMedCareer Study (a prospective cohort study of physicians who graduated in 2001; n = 543) and the Swiss Household Panel (a representative Swiss survey on living and working conditions; university graduates of the same age range: n = 172, general working population of the same age range: n = 670). Data were analysed with Chi2tests, correlations and logistic regressions.
Results: Physicians reported strong time-based as well as strain-based work-life conflicts more frequently than university graduates and the general working population. Significantly more physicians reported “moderate” to “very poor” health than the other two samples. Surprisingly, on the other side of the scale (“very good” health), physicians outnumbered the other samples too. Strong associations between work-life conflict and self-rated health as well as various health complaints were found for physicians.
Conclusion: The high prevalence of work-life conflict may explain the comparably high prevalence of poor self-rated health in the physicians’ sample.
- Geurts SAE, Kompier MAJ, Roxburgh S, Houtman ILD. Does work-home interference mediate the relationship between workload and well-being? J Voc Behav. 2003;63:532–59.
- Reichenbach L, Brown H. Gender and academic medicine: impacts on the health workforce. Br Med J. 2004;329:792–5.
- Fox G, Schwartz A, Hart KM. Work-family balance and academic advancement in medical schools. Acad Psych. 2006;30(3):227–34.
- Fuss I, Nübling M, Hasselhorn H-M, Schwappach D, Rieger MA. Working conditions and work-family conflict in German hospital physicians: psychosocial and organisational predictors and consequences. BMC Public Health. 2008;8(353):1–17.
- Bundesamt für Statistik BuW: Bildungsprozess Schweizerisches Hochschulinformationssystem (SHIS): Studierende und Abschlüsse. In.; 2009.
- FMH-Ärztestatistik 2007 [http://www.fmh.ch/themen/aerztedemographie/aerztestatistik.html]
- Greenhaus JH, Beutell NJ. Sources of conflict between work and family roles. Acad Manag Rev. 1985;10(1):76–88.
- Kelloway EK, Gottlieb BH, Barham L. The source, nature, and direction of work and family conflict: A longitudinal investigation. J Occup Health Psychol. 1999;4(4):337–46.
- Gutek B, Searle S, L. K. Rational versus gender role-explanations for work-family conflict. J Appl Psychol. 1991;76:560–8.
- Allen TD, Herst DEL, Bruck CS, Sutton M. Consequences associated with work-to-family conflict: A review and agenda for future research. J Occup Health Psychol. 2000;5(2):278–308.
- Frone MR, Russell M, Barnes GM. Work-family conflict, gender, and health-related outcomes: A study of employed parents in two community samples. J Occup Health Psychol. 199;1(1):57–69.
- Hämmig O, Bauer GF. Work-life imbalance and mental health among male and female employees in Switzerland. Int J Public Health. 2009;54(2):88–95.
- Hämmig O, Gutzwiller F, Bauer GF. Work-life conflict and associations with work- and nonwork-related factors and physical and mental health outcomes: a nationally representative cross-sectional study in Switzerland. BMC Public Health. 2009, 9.
- Demerouti E, Bakker AB, Bulters AJ: The loss spiral of work pressure, work-home interference and exhaustion: Reciprocal relations in a three-wave study. J Voc Behav. 2004;64(1):131–49.
- Peeters MCW, de Jonge J, Janssen PPM, van der Linden S. Work-home interference, job stressors, and employee health in a longitudinal perspective. Int J Stress Manag. 2004;11(4):305–22.
- Dikkers JSE, Geurts S, Kompier MAJ, Taris TW, Houtman ILD, van den Heuvel F. Does workload cause work-home interference or is it the other way around? Stress and Health. 2007;23:303–14.
- Britt TW, Dawson CR. Predicting work-family conflict from workload, job attitudes, group attributes, and health: A longitudinal study. Mil Psychol. 2005;17(3):203–27.
- Biaggi P, Peter S, Ulich E. Stressors, emotional exhaustion and aversion to patients in residents and chief residents – what can be done? Swiss Med Wkly. 2003;133:339–46.
- Geurts S, Rutte C, Peeters M. Antecedents and consequences of work-home interference among medical residents. Soc Sci Med. 1999;48(9):1135–48.
- Montgomery AJ, Panagopolou E, Benos A. Work-family interference as a mediator between job demands and job burnout among doctors. Stress and Health. 2006;22(3):203–12.
- Rovik JO, Tyssen R, Hem E, Gude T, Ekeberg O, Moum T, Vaglum P. Job stress in young physicians with an emphasis on the work-home interference: A nine-year, nationwide and longitudinal study of its course and predictors. Industrial Health. 2007;45:662–71.
- Adam S, Györffy Z, Susanszky E. Physician burnout in Hungary: A potential role for work family conflict. J Health Psychol. 2008;13(7):847–56.
- Buddeberg-Fischer B, Stamm M, Buddeberg C, Klaghofer R. The new generation of family physicians – career motivation, life goals and work-life balance. Swiss Med Wkly. 2008;138:305–12.
- Töyry S, Räsänen K, Kujala S, Äärimaa M, Juntunen J, Kalimo R, et al. Self-reported health, illness, and self-care among Finnish physicians. Arch Fam Med. 2000;9(10):1079–85.
- Lovell BL, Lee RT, Frank E. May I long experience the joy of healing: Professional and personal wellbeing among physicians from a Canadian province. BMC Fam Pract. 2009;10:18.
- Frank E, McMurray JE, Linzer M, Elon L. Career satisfaction of US women physicians: Results from the woman physicians’ health study. Society of general internal medicine career satisfaction study group. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159(13):1417–26.
- Resch M, Hagge M. Ärztegesundheit – ein lange vernachlässigtes Thema. In.
- Jurkat HB, Cramer M, Reimer C, Kupfer J, Gieler U. Gesundheitsbezogene Lebensqualität von Dermatologen im Vergleich zu anderen Arztgruppen. Hausarzt. 2007;58:38–47.
- Buddeberg-Fischer B, Stamm M, Buddeberg C, Bauer G, Hämmig O, Klaghofer R. Arbeitsstress, Gesundheit und Lebenszufriedenheit junger Ärztinnen und Ärzte. Ergebnisse einer Schweizer Longitudinalstudie. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 2008;133:2441–7.
- Buddeberg-Fischer B, Stamm M, Buddeberg C, Klaghofer R. Angst und Depression bei jungen Ärztinnen und Ärzten – Ergebnisse einer Schweizer Longitudinalstudie. Z Psychosom Med Psychother. 2009;55:37–50.
- Buddeberg-Fischer B, Klaghofer R, Stamm M, Siegrist J, Buddeberg C. Work stress and reduced health in young physicians: prospective evidence from Swiss residents. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2008;82:31–8.
- Aasland O, G., Olff M, Falkum E, Schweder T, Ursin H. Health complaints and job stress in Norwegian physicians: the use of an overlapping questionnaire design. Soc Sci Med. 1997;45(11):1615–29.
- Stavem K, Hofoss D, Aasland OG, Loge JH. The self-perceived health status of Norwegian physicians compared with a reference population and foreign physicians. Scand J Public Health. 2001;29:194–9.
- Carlson DS, Kacmar KM, Williams LJ. Construction and initial validation of a multidimensional measure of work-family conflict. J Voc Behav. 2000;56(2):249–76.
- Bird CE, Fremont AM. Gender, time use, and health. J Health Soc Behav. 1991;32(2):114–29.
- Idler E, Benyamini Y. Self-rated health and mortality: a review of twenty-seven community studies. J Health Soc Behav. 1997;38:21–37.
- Frone MR, Russell M, Cooper ML. Antecedents and outcomes of work-family conflict: Testing a model of the work-family interface. J Appl Psychol. 1992;77(1):65–78.
- Thompson CA, Prottas DJ. Relationships among organizational family support, job autonomy, perceived control, and employee well-being. J Occup Health Psychol. 2005;10(4):100–18.
- Kawada T, Ooya M. Workload and health complaints in overtime workers: a survey. Arch Med Res. 2005;36(5):594–7.
- Krantz G, Berntsson L, Lundberg U. Total workload, work stress and perceived symptoms in Swedish male and female with-collar employees. Eur J Public Health. 2005;15(2):209–14.