The accurate diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension associated with left-sided heart disease and of the underlying mechanism can be challenging, but is crucial as it is the basis on which to define the appropriate management.
Surgical treatment is considered the gold standard for symptomatic chronic subdural haematomoa, but may become complex because most of the patients are advanced in age and/or are being treated with anticoagulants. Thus, nonsurgical treatment may be highly valuable in some situations.
HER2-targeted treatment has improved the overall survival of patients with HER2-postive metastatic breast cancer with median OS exceeding 5 years. There are, however, no predictive markers for a long-term survival.